Chewing Black Bones, a respected Blackfeet elder, told Ella E.
Clark the following creation myth in 1953. Clark later published the account in
her book, "Indian Legends from the Northern Rockies."
Old Man came from the south, making the mountains, the prairies, and the forests
as he passed along, making the birds and the animals also. He traveled northward
making things as he went, putting red paint in the ground here and there
--arranging the world as we see it today.
He made the Milk River and crossed it; being tired, he went up on a little hill
and lay down to rest. As he lay on his back, stretched out on the grass with his
arms extended, he marked his figure with stones. You can see those rocks today,
they show the shape of his body, legs, arms and hair.
Going on north after he had rested, he stumbled over a knoll and fell down on
his knees. He said aloud, "You are a bad thing to make me stumble so." Then he
raised up two large buttes there and named them the Knees. They are called the
Knees to this day. He went on farther north, and with some of the rocks he
carried with him he built the Sweet Grass Hills.
Old Man covered the plains with grass for the animals to feed on. He marked off
a piece of ground and in it made all kinds of roots and berries to grow: camas,
carrots, turnips, bitterroot, sarvisberries, bull-berries, cherries, plums, and
rosebuds. He planted trees, and he put all kinds of animals on the ground.
When he created the bighorn sheep with its big head and horns, he made it out on
the prairie. But it did not travel easily on the prairie; it was awkward and
could not go fast. So Old Man took it by its horns, led it up into the mountain,
and turned it loose. There the bighorn skipped about among the rocks and went up
fearful places with ease. So Old Man said to it, "This is the kind of place that
suits you; this is what you are fitted for, the rocks, and the mountains."
While he was in the mountains, he made the antelope out of dirt and turned it
loose to see how it would do. It ran so fast that it fell over some rocks and
hurt itself. Seeing that the mountains were not the place for it, Old Man took
the antelope down to the prairie and turned it loose. When he saw it running
away fast and gracefully, he said, "This is what you are suited to, the broad
One day Old Man decided that he would make a woman and a child. So he formed
them both of clay, the woman and the child, her son.
After he had molded the clay in human shape, he said to it, "You must be
people." And then he covered it up and went away. The next morning he went to
the place, took off the covering, looked at the images, and said "Arise and
walk." They did so. They walked down to the river with their maker, and then he
told them that his name was NAPI, Old Man.
This is how we came to be people. It is he who made us.
The first people were poor and naked, and they did not know how to do anything
for themselves. Old Man showed them the roots and berries and said "You can eat
these." Then he pointed to certain trees, "When the bark of these trees is young
and tender, it is good. Then you can peel it off and eat it."
He told the people that the animals also should be their food. "These are your
herds," he said. "All these little animals that live on the ground -- squirrels,
rabbits, skunks, beavers, are good to eat. You need not fear to eat their flesh.
All the birds that fly, these too, I have made for you, so that you can eat of
Old Man took the first people over the prairies and through the forests, then
the swamps to show them the different plants he had created. He told them what
herbs were good for sicknesses, saying often, "The root of this herb or the leaf
of this herb, if gathered in a certain month of the year, is good for certain
sickness." In that way the people learned the power of all herbs. Then he showed
them how to make weapons with which to kill the animals for their food. First,
he went out and cut some sarvisberry shoots, brought them in, and peeled the
bark off them. He took one of the larger shoots, flattened it, tied a string to
it, and thus made a bow. Then he caught one of the birds he had made, took
feathers from its wing, split them, and tied them to a shaft of wood.
At first he tied four feathers along the shaft, and with this bow sent the arrow
toward its mark. But he found that it did not fly well. When he used only three
feathers, it went straight to the mark. Then he went out and began to break
sharp pieces off the stones. When he tied them at the ends of his arrows, he
found that the black flint stones, and some white flint, made the best arrow
When the people had learned to make bow and arrows, Old Man taught them how to
shoot animals and birds. Because it is not healthful to eat animals' flesh raw,
he showed the first people how to make fire. He gathered soft, dry rotten
driftwood and made a punk of it. Then he found a piece of hard wood and drilled
a hole in it with an arrow point. He gave the first man a pointed piece of hard
wood and showed him how to roll it between his hands until sparks came out and
the punk caught fire. Then he showed the people how to cook the meat of the
animals they had killed and how to eat it.
He told them to get a certain kind of stone that was on the land, while he found
a harder stone. With the hard stone he had them hollow out the softer one and so
make a kettle. Thus, they made their dishes.
Old Man told the first people how to get spirit power: "Go away by yourself and
go to sleep. Something will come to you in your dream that will help you. It may
be some animal. Whatever this animal tells you in your sleep, you must do. Obey
it. Be guided by it. If later you want help, if you are traveling alone and cry
aloud for help, your prayer will be answered. It may be by an eagle, perhaps by
a buffalo, perhaps by a bear. Whatever animal hears your prayer you must listen
That was how the first people got along in the world, by the power given to them
in their dreams.
After this, Old Man kept on traveling north. Many of the animals that he had
created followed him. They understood when he spoke to them, and they were his
servants. When he got to the north point of the Porcupine Mountains, he made
some more mud images of people, blew his breath upon them, and they became
people, men and women. They asked him, "What are we to eat?"
By way of answer, Old Man made many images of clay in the form of buffalo. Then
he blew breath upon them and they stood up. When he made signs to them, they
started to run. Then he said to the people, "Those animals--buffalo--are your
"But how can we kill them?" the people asked.
"I will show you," he answered.
He took them to a cliff and told them to build rock piles: "Now hide behind
these piles of rocks," he said. "I will lead the buffalo this way. When they are
opposite you, rise up."
After telling them what to do, he started toward the herd of buffalo. When he
called the animals, they started to run toward him, and they followed him until
they were inside the piles of rock. Then Old Man dropped back. As the people
rose up, the buffalo ran in a straight line and jumped over the cliff.
"Go down and take the flesh of those animals," said Old Man.
The people tried to tear the limbs apart, but they could not. Old Man went to
the edge of the cliff, broke off some pieces with sharp edges, and told the
people to cut the flesh with these rocks. They obeyed him. When they had skinned
the buffalo, they set up some poles and put the hides on them. Thus they made a
shelter to sleep under.
After Old Man had taught the people all these things, he started off again,
traveling north until he came to where the Bow and Elbow Rivers meet. There he
made some more people and taught them the same things. From there he went
farther north. When he had gone almost to the Red Deer River, he was so tired
that he lay down on a hill. The form of his body can be seen there yet, on the
top of the hill where he rested.
When he awoke from his sleep, he traveled farther north until he came to a high
hill. He climbed to the top of it and there he sat down to rest. As he gazed
over the country, he was greatly pleased by it. Looking at the steep hill below
him, he said to himself, "This is a fine place for sliding. I will have some
fun." And he began to slide down the hill. The marks where he slid are to be
seen yet, and the place is known to all the Blackfeet tribes as "Old ManŐs
Old Man can never die. Long ago he left the Blackfeet and went away toward the
west, disappearing in the mountains. Before he started, he said to the people,
"I will always take care of you, and some day I will return."
Even today some people think that he spoke the truth and that when he comes back
he will bring with him the buffalo, which they believe the white men have
hidden. Others remember that before he left them he said that when he returned
he would find them a different people. They would be living in a different
world, he said, from that which he had created for them and had taught them to